The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

Assessment of the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) Student Teaching Program Towards the Development of a Student Teaching Manual

Josephine C. Marasigan ,


Student Teaching Program (STP) caps the professional practice in the Teacher Education Curriculum. Hence, STP needs to be assessed in regards to the following components: Program Objectives, Administration, Supervision, Policies and Guidelines, Instructional Activities, and Methods of Assessment towards the development of Student Teaching Manual (STM). The study employed a descriptive method of research using a normative survey technique with documentary analysis. Unstructured interview was used to supplement the data. Results indicated that the level of effectiveness of STP in relation to its component was generally effective. As rated by the stakeholders, supervision was consistently ranked 1st, very effective, and the other components were all rated effective.Even though the majority of the components were effective, except for supervision which was rated very effective, opportunities for improvement of the implementation of STP could still be explored through the development of a Student Teaching Manual.


  Student Teaching caps all educational courses in the Teacher Education Curriculum. It is believed to be the most significant program for field experience in teacher preparation and  professional  practice. Traditionally  labeled  as  “field  experience  program”,  Student Teaching aims to provide systematic and realistic contacts between teacher education students and the tasks involved in teaching. Hence, field experience provides an authentic context in which  pre-service  teachers  gain  empirical  teaching  expertise  intertwined  with  the complexities of the teaching knowledge that helps these pre-service teachers restructure their vocation with greater fervor and commitment.

  Corollary to the above significance of the Student Teaching Program (STP), stated in the nature and description of Bachelor of Elementary Education STP of the Commission of Higher Education (CHED) Memorandum Order No. 11, series of 1999, states that the quality of the educational process depends on the level of education and the professional training of would-be teachers. According to Reganit et al. (2004), student teaching is a phase in teacher training which puts  to  practice  the  theories and principles and understanding learned by students in the professional course.

  As such, the impact of the afore cited proposition poses a challenge to all Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) of the Philippines, more specially for those TEIs classified under Center of Excellence (COE) in Teacher Education. Student Teaching is critically an important program to be assessed. The journey to meaningful teaching experiences should be made clear to the end users, the student teaching supervisors and the student teachers who are the benefactors of the program. At this conjuncture, it is likewise necessary among the TEIs to have an in-depth reexamination of the written policies and guidelines set by administrators in the existing STP of the BEED in the ESSU System in order to see the actualities of the program and suggest ways on how to revitalize it. In as much as objective assessment is necessary, the existing STP guidelines of ESSU should be revisited and analyzed carefully.

  Considerably, after the assessment of the status of STP, it is of utmost importance that weaknesses of the program be identified. Based on the identified needs/weaknesses of the  program,  the  researcher  would  be  working  towards  the  development  of  a  Student Teaching Manual (STM) for BEED Student Teaching Program of ESSU System.   The manual would be a vital document which would provide the benefactors (student teachers)  with  a  clearer  path  towards  a  meaningful  journey  to  a  successful  teaching profession.


Statement of the Problem

  This particular study assessed the Student Teaching Program (STP) of the BEED in the Eastern Samar State University System. Specifically, the study endeavored to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the status of the STP of the Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEED) in ESSU System?
  2. What  are  the  assessments  of  the  stakeholders  (administrators,  cooperating teachers, and student teachers) in the following components of the Student Teaching Program in ESSU System?

    2.1  Program objectives

    2.2  Administration and supervision

    2.3  Policies and guidelines

    2.4  Instructional activities

    2.5  Methods of assessment

  1. What is the level of effectiveness of the Student Teaching Program of BEED in the ESSU System in relation to the aforementioned components?
  2. What are  the problems/weaknesses  encountered by the stakeholders and their level of seriousness in relation to the components of STP of the BEED in the ESSU System?
  3. Based on the identified problems/weaknesses of the STP in the ESSU System, what additional policies and guidelines are to be incorporated towards the development of a BEED Student Teaching Manual?


Research Framework

  Assessment of evaluation is a process that stakeholders of schools perform in order to  gather  data  that  will  enable  them  to  decide  whether  to  accept,  change,  or  eliminate something – the curriculum in general.

  The  present  study  was  anchored  on  the  assessment  of  an  existing  educational program which included its components as well as the delivery of such components. In this study, the STP of ESSU System was assessed. An adaptation model from the most common program evaluation model, otherwise known as Context-Input-Process-Product (CIPP), was utilized in the study.

  The  Context-Input-Process-Product  (CIPP)  Model  was  forwarded  by  Daniel Stufflebeam and was  devised  in  1985. This CIPP approach to evaluation is rooted in its definition  of  evaluation  as  the  process  of  delineating,  obtaining  and  providing  useful information  for  judging  decision  alternatives  ( Evaluation in the study is a term used synonymously with assessment.

  In support, Hernandez (2004) emphasized this definition by pointing out that this assessment  model  provides  useful  information  for  judging  decision  alternatives.  Since assessment  is  a  continuing  and  cyclic  process,  it  must  be  implemented  via  a  systematic program.

  Cognizant of the thrust of the present study, an adapted model from the CIPP model was deemed appropriate. The model entailed three processes that were used to show the relationships of the variables in the study, namely: Input, Process, and Product (IPP).

  The  Input  component  involves  the  designed  program  of  student  teaching  which comprised  the  research  variables  evaluated  critically  such  as:  program  objectives, administration and supervision, policies and guidelines, instructional activities, and methods of  assessment. The  Input  component  determines  the  available  program  designed  for  the student  teaching  and  it  provides  information  on  how  stakeholders  employ  resources  to achieve program objectives.

  On the other hand, the Process component is an on-going quality control monitoring of the program to identify any defects or flaws in the procedural design. This is used to determine the congruency between the planned and actual activities. From such evaluation, decision-makers  obtain  information  they  need  to  anticipate  and  overcome  procedural difficulties and to make decisions.

  Meanwhile, the Product component provides evaluation of the information that will enable the stakeholder to decide whether to continue, terminate, or modify the program.



Figure 1  The conceptual framework of the study: Research paradigm towards  the development of a BEED Student Teaching Manual (STM) for the ESSU System using  the IPP model



  The  study  employed  a  descriptive  method  of  research  using  a  normative  survey technique to assess the Student Teaching Program of the BEED in the Eastern Samar State University (ESS) System.

  The  study  was  descriptive  since  the  researcher  aimed  at  assessing  the  existing condition of the BEED Student Teaching Program of the ESSU System. Knowledge of the existing condition is essential and requires standards of assessment. The researcher used this method  to  provide  accurate  observation  and  objective  assessment  to  gather  the  data.   In  support,  explained  that  descriptive  research  is  concerned  with  the  analysis  of  the relationship  between  non-manipulated  variables  and  the  development  of  generalizations, principles or theories  that extend its  conclusion beyond the sample observed or variable tested.

  Moreover,  normative  survey  technique  was  employed  in  this  study  as  it  was concerned with ascertaining the conditions which prevailed in group cases/variables chosen from  the  study.  Normative  survey  is  essentially  a  strategy  or  technique  of  quantitative description of the general characteristics of the group. Any study which establishes standards of what is prevalent is a normative survey technique. Descriptive research design was deemed appropriate since the study would gather information on the present day policies, procedures, activities and processes of the STP in the ESSU System.

  Likewise, documentary analysis was also utilized to gather data on the profile of the BEED student teaching program, existing guidelines, syllabus and other pertinent documents needed  in  the  study.  Unstructured  interview  was  used  to  supplement  the  data  gathered through the self-made questionnaire.

  The  total  number  of  stakeholders/respondents  were  389  which  were  classified accordingly. From the total number of respondents, administrators (43 or 11%) who were the deans, program heads, STP supervisors and coordinators in the Department of Education who oversee the program, cooperating teachers (171 or 44%) from the elementary schools that provided the teaching experience to student teachers, and student teachers (175 or 45%) who were bonafide BEED college students enrolled in student teaching. These respondents were utilized based on their availability and willingness to participate in the study. Furthermore, accessible respondents, according to are the respondents who are readily available at the time of administration of research instrument.

  The study made use of the following descriptive statistics: percentage, mean, and ranking.  Percentage  was  used  to  determine  the  profile  of  the  status  of  Student Teaching Program. Mean was used to determine the objective assessment of the respondents on the status of STP in relation to its components. Moreover, this was utilized to identify the level effectiveness of STP implementation and the problems encountered by the respondents during the program, as well as the level of seriousness of the problem/weaknesses of the problems. Ranking was used to identify the weaknesses of the program encountered by the stakeholders in relation to the STP components. The weaknesses identified were addressed through new policies and guidelines which were incorporated towards the development a Student Teaching Manual (STM) of the BEED in the ESSU System.


Results and Discussion

  The highlights of the study on the status of STP indicated that: ESSU – Main had more BEED student teachers enrolled in STP than ESSU – Salcedo. ESSU – Main and ESSU –  Salcedo  had  adequate  numbers  of  cooperating  teachers.  The  majority  of  the  high performing schools in the Province of Eastern Samar were utilized as cooperating schools/laboratory schools. ESSU – Main had fewer numbers of student teaching supervisors, while ESSU – Salcedo had just enough numbers of student teaching supervisors to monitor student teachers’ performance. An ideal ratio was observed between cooperating teachers and student teachers at both campuses. The ratio of student teacher supervisors to student teachers in ESSU – Main was not proportionate as compared to the ratio of student teaching supervisor and student teacher in ESSU – Salcedo.

  The assessment of the STP by its stakeholders in relation to its major components was implemented. In particular, the administration had evidently managed the STP as they were  supportive  in  the  implementation  of  the  program. The  supervision  of  the  STP  was implemented very evidently which was attributed to the cooperating teachers’ competence in supervising  student  teachers’  performance.  STP  was  evidently  governed  by  policies  and guidelines which needed  to  be  added towards the development of a STM to address the problems/weaknesses  encountered  by  the  stakeholders  to  improve  the  program.   The instructional activities in the STP were evidently provided to student teachers to improve teaching competence. The methods of assessment were evidently set for the STP to assess student teachers’ performance.

  Moreover,  the  level  of  effectiveness  of  STP  in  relation  to  its  component  was generally effective, with a total mean of 4.14. As rated by the stakeholders, supervision was consistently  ranked  1st,  with  a  total  mean  rating  of  4.26  (Very  Effective),  and  the  other components were all rated effective. Program objectives were effective, with a mean of 4.17, instructional activities had a mean of 4.15, administration had a mean of 4.01, the mean of policies and guidelines was 4.08 and methods of assessment showed a mean rating of 4.18. Although the majority of the components were effective, except for supervision which was rated very effective, opportunities for improvement of the implementation of STP could still be explored. The data on the level of effectiveness of STP in relation to its components are illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1  Level of Effectiveness of the BEED Student Teaching Program (STP) in Relation  to its Components



  Generally, the problems/weaknesses that had prevailed in program objectives and needed to be examined were the lack of dissemination of the STP objectives, lack of clarity in the statement of STP objectives, and lack of understanding of STP objectives among student teachers,  cooperating  teachers,  and  administration.  The  problems/weaknesses  of administration  were  centered  on  the  lack  of  in-service  training  for  student  teaching supervisors and cooperating teachers, no distinct office for student teaching in campus, and the  inability  of  STP  administration  to  plan  for  a  rich  and  practical  program  for  student teaching.

  The  problems/weaknesses  which  were  encountered  by  the  stakeholders  on supervision were the insufficient number of supervisor visits to cooperating schools and student teachers, lack of innovative supervisory approaches/techniques shown by cooperating teachers and student teaching supervisors, and the large number of student teachers handled by  student  teaching  supervisors.  The  prevailing  problems/weaknesses  of  policies  and guidelines which needed to be addressed in the proposed Student Teaching Manual (STM) were centered on the inconsistent implementation of some STP policies and guidelines, poor mechanism for the dissemination of STP policies and guidelines, and unwritten policies and guidelines.

  The problems/weaknesses of instructional activities were centered on the limited exposure  of  student  teachers  to  seminars  and  conferences  on  innovative  approaches  to teaching,  insufficient  number  of  hours  spent  for  actual  teaching  in  one’s  field  of specialization, and inadequate time provided for observation in one’s field of specialization/concentration.

Program Objectives

  The primary problems/weaknesses of methods of assessment which needed to be resolved in the STP were the failure of the student teaching supervisors to observe due to some academic loads in the college, limited number of post-conferences with supervisors/cooperating teachers, and laxity supervisors/cooperating teachers to assess/evaluate student teaching performance.

  After  an  objective  analysis  of  the  problems/weaknesses  of  the  STP,  and  in  due considerations  to  the  need  of  developing  a  Student Teaching  Manual  (STM),  additional policies and guidelines have been suggested for the said manual. Moreover, this manual will be a very significant contribution to the Eastern Samar State University (ESSU) and other Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Visayas Region.



  On the bases of the results and findings drawn from the study, the researcher offered the following recommendations:

  1. ESSU, through the College of Education/Teacher Education Department, should sustain the collaboration and partnership with the Department of Education to elevate the status of the Student Teaching Program in the province.
  2. Teacher  Education  Institutions  (TEIs)  in  Eastern  Samar/other  places  in  the Visayas Region should likewise conduct periodic situational analyses in order to restructure student teaching program to cater to the specific needs of teachers in the locality.
  3. ESSU Administrators  in  the  Student  Teaching  Program  should  revisit  and restructure  the  major  components  of  the  STP  in  coordination  with  other  stakeholders  to address the identified problems and weaknesses in the study in order to incorporate new policies in the newly developed Student Teaching Manual
  4. The  ESSU  System,  through  the  College  of  Education/Teacher  Education Department, should validate and recommend the newly developed BEED Student Teaching Manual for the approval of the Board of Regents. This manual contains the additional STP policies and guidelines and other parts which are essential to improvement of STP.
  5. The  newly-developed  STM  for  the  Bachelor  of  Elementary  Education  in  the ESSU System should be used to improve the Student Teaching Program  
  6. Researchers should conduct further studies relative to assessing and evaluating teacher preparation programs in the province/region.





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Reganit, A.R. and Osea, A.P. (2004). Essentials of student teaching. Valenzuela City: Mutya Publishing House.



  Josephine C. Marasigan

    Eastern Samar State University, College of Education

    Barangay Maypangdan Borongan Eastern Samar, Philippines



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