The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

Content Knowledge on the Highlights of the K to 12 Curriculum Implementation: Basic for a Proposed Development Plan


Joseph R. Carreon,


Abstract

Teachers as a steward for cognizant transformational change must continuously upgrade their personal growth and professional development. The need to optimize competency-based teacher standards in order to carry out a high performance of their roles and responsibilities as a key to realize the imperatives of the K to 12 curriculum program brings focus in this study. The study assess the content knowledge on the highlights of the K to 12 curriculum implementation of the Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) teachers of General Emilio Aguinaldo National High School. The study was purposively involved 31 teachers using the descriptive-quantitative research design with the support of the focus group discussion. A validated researcher-made questionnaire with corresponding arbitrary scale and verbal interpretation was used in the study. The findings of the study revealed that only 71 % were able to attend K to 12 seminars/training, 52 % have a Master degree, 3 % have a Ph.D., and 45 % are less than three years in service. It was also revealed that teachers had a satisfactory level of content knowledge on the pre-assessment with a mean of 3.08 or 77 % indicative level of awareness. The in-service training program through capacity building highly improved teacher’s content knowledge with a mean of 3.79 or 94.75 % indicative level of awareness. Thus, the in-service training program that responds to teachers’ competency needs standards was deemed effective in intensifying content knowledge of the TLE teachers of the current development in education. The study suggests to sustain the proposed development plan in initiating seminar, training, and assessment regardless of curriculum reform to further upgrade teacher’s competence

Content Knowledge on the Highlights of the K to 12 Curriculum Implementation:
Basic for a Proposed Development Plan
Joseph R. Carreon
General Emilio Aguinaldo National High School, Cavite, 4103 Philippines

Abstract
The study of the development of turnover intention prediction model for out-of-office workers in Thailand aims to investigate the factors affecting probability of turnover intention and to develop the most suitable turnover intention prediction model for out-of-office workers by using binary logistic regression approach. This is a quantitative social science survey research. The population of the study are professional employees that are assigned to work outside the office, including but not limited to salespersons, financial auditors, management consultants, medical representatives, real estate agents and other professional jobs that often work outside an office. Research tools are questionnaires and rating scales. A convenience sampling method was applied. Self-administrative questionnaires both hard copy and electronic form were directly distributed to various out-of-office workers in Thailand. In this study, 420 sample size was collected and separate into 67% of training set and 33% of test set. The well-fitted turnover intention prediction from binary logistic regression approach for out-of-office worker can be deliberately developed and fitted with empirical data. It is obvious and clear that all thelegacy negative work-related factors are still relevant and contribute to the prediction of turnover intention of employees. Organizations should utilize any possible countermeasures to mitigate these risks. For future research, qualitative research should be done so as to gain more insights regarding turnover intention.

Keywords: Binary logistic regression, Burnout, Turnover intention

Introduction
Department of Education Basic Education System Reform Agenda considered the K to 12 curriculum as the flagship reform initiatives that will produce ideal graduates who are more productive and effective people geared with essential knowledge and skills for life-long learning. The empirical initiatives of Basic Education Reform Agenda (BESRA) are the creation of the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS). In response to the need, DepEd continuously used The Philippine Department of Education believes that transforming the basic education system will improve
education outcomes. Cruz (2011) stated that the K to 12 curriculum program must adequately respond to local needs while allowing graduates to maximize job opportunities beyond boundaries by reducing jobs-skills mismatch and better preparation for higher learning and achieve education for all. But issues and challenges exist in the Philippine education to upgrading teachers’
competence in teaching the new curriculum. A major reform movement has placed accountability on the shoulder of the K to 12 teachers’ commitment to structure
content knowledge on the curriculum for democratic education teaching practice while fostering their
awareness on the guidelines and implementing rules and regulations on the curriculum (Chang, 2005). The reform faces challenges in redesigning the curriculum, in deploying and training teachers at the start of the program’s implementation, in ensuring the sustainability of the program, and in meeting the required infrastructure (Sergio, 2011). Collaborative professional development
such as in-service training has the potential in promoting inquiry-based on developing a more in-depth understanding of the nature and processes of the curriculum which are often unsustain (Lee, 2011). As emphasized by Braza & Supapo, (2014) the problems encountered in the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum is the lack of training, seminar, and unclear standard operating procedures. Since teachers still found difficulty in adhering to the standards and principles of the K to 12 curriculum in the Philippines. A major challenge was in supporting teachers in mastering a new curriculum and introducing student-centered inclusive pedagogy. According to Torres (2014) there is a significant gap between the competency level and the anticipated competency standard of TLE teachers of the Division of Imus City particularly on the teaching pedagogy that foster motivation and opportunity for students that would enhance their competency; transform professional oath
and revitalize unparalleled nobility.

Personal Growth and Professional Development– domain seven of NCBTS-TSNA consolidated report
of teachers assessment of TLE Department reveals that building professional links with colleagues to enrich teaching practices particularly at the level of keeping abreast with recent development in education received the third-lowest performance indicator. Basic Education Reform Agenda created NCBTS-TSNA as part of policy reforms of DepEd pursuing a package of reforms that seeks the quality of basic education. These policy reforms are expected to create the crucial changes necessary to
further accelerate, broaden, deepen and sustain the improved effort already started (DepEd-BESRA).
Aquino (2015) stressed that far from being a quick fix to our laggard status, the K to 12 programs were carefully studied and designed by both private and public education stakeholders based on research from other countries and our own local successes and failures in education. According to Vernez, Karam, & Marshall (2012) the process of development gave the authority for schools to arrange, improve or develop, assess and evaluate their curriculum by considering social, cultural,
financial, and local potentials as well as society needs and other results of the different aspects which pertains to performance indicators of the schools that affect the education process, performance of the teachers and students. Teachers as agent for transformational change
must demonstrate a deep understanding of the highlights of the K to 12 curriculum. Therefore, the Department of Education must assure that the K to 12 teachers must be
fully aware of the highlights of the new curriculum design. Despite the reform strategy of the Department of Education, the question still remains: Are the K to 12 teachers able to demonstrate an understanding of such change of the current development in education? Presently, K to 12 curriculum is running after and the Department of Education continuously improves the system for the welfare of the teachers.Personal Growth and Professional Development – domain seven of NCBTS-TSNA consolidated report of teachers assessment of TLE Department reveals that building professional links with colleagues to enrich teaching practices particularly at the level of keeping
abreast with recent development in education received the third-lowest performance indicator. Basic Education Reform Agenda created NCBTS-TSNA as part of policy reforms of DepEd pursuing a package of reforms that seeks the quality of basic education. These policy reforms
are expected to create the crucial changes necessary to further accelerate, broaden, deepen and sustain the improved effort already started (DepEd-BESRA). Aquino (2015) stressed that far from being a quick fix to our laggard status, the K to 12 programs were carefully studied and designed by both private and public education stakeholders based on research from other countries and our own local successes and failures in education. According to Vernez, Karam, & Marshall
(2012) the process of development gave the authority for schools to arrange, improve or develop, assess and evaluate their curriculum by considering social, cultural, financial, and local potentials as well as society needs and other results of the different aspects which pertains
to performance indicators of the schools that affect the education process, performance of the teachers and students. Teachers as agent for transformational change must demonstrate a deep understanding of the highlights of the K to 12 curriculum. Therefore, the Department of Education must assure that the K to 12 teachers must be fully aware of the highlights of the new curriculum
design. Despite the reform strategy of the Department of Education, the question still remains: Are the K to 12 teachers able to demonstrate an understanding of such change of the current development in education? Presently, K to 12 curriculum is running after and the Department of Education continuously improves the system for the welfare of the teachers.

To continuously elevate teachers’ knowledge and skills, an annual assessment is conducted. The
consolidated report on national competency-based teachers’ standards of performance appraisal of TLE teachers which reflects on the TSNA report performance indicator uncovered the needs to intensify teacher’s content knowledge. This framework establishes the competency standards for teachers’ content knowledge on the curriculum. This complex set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that each teacher must possess in order to demonstrate the adequate performance of their duties and responsibilities. In connection with the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum, it can be
said that the performance of the students reflects the performance of the teacher and the school as a whole.

This study aims to assess the content knowledge of the TLE teachers regarding the highlights of the K to 12 curriculum. It will enable school managers to understand the current status of the K to 12 teachers regarding level of awareness on the content and underlying principles
of the K to 12 curriculum program. The purpose of this study wanted to determine the demographic profile of the TLE teachers and to assess their level of awareness on the content knowledge on the highlights of the K-12 curriculum implementation before and after the in-service training program. Thus, it will serve as reference point for continuous improvement and to the proposed
development plan towards the attainment of the overarching goal of the implementation of the K to 12 curriculum framework of TLE components in General Emilio Aguinaldo National High School.

Key words: Development plan, Competencybased teacher standards, Content knowledge,, K to 12 curriculum highlights
     
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