The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

Development of Learning Management Model by Integrating PhenoBL Approach and DTP to Promote Curriculum Knowledge, Innovative Thinking Ability, and Achievement Motivation of Thai Pre-Service Teachers


Somkiart Intasingh *1,


Abstract

Abstract This research aims to 1) study problems and needs in learning management of Curriculum Design and Development (CDD) course, 2) develop learning management model by integrating Phenomenon – Based Learning (PhenoBL) approach and Design Thinking Process (DTP), and 3) study results of learning management model implemented. Participants were 3 groups – 1) target groups who gave data about problems and needs were 20 undergraduate students, 4 major instructors, and 3 administrators, 2) target group who evaluated the quality of model was 6 experts, and 3) experimental sample group was 30 second year undergraduate students from The Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand who registered for the CDD course in the first semester of 2018 academic year. This section of students had mixed majors. They were chosen by cluster random sampling. This research was operated based on research and development (R&D) process. Research findings found that 1) students did not have important basic knowledge and were assigned to a lot of tasks in each of the courses. Major instructors and administrators identified that course instructor must organize learning to enhance curriculum understanding and develop achievement motivation of students, 2) learning management model, developed by researcher, consisted of 6 components - i) purpose, ii) principles, iii) process in 5 stages - considering phenomenon (CP), analyzing related knowledge (AK), designing innovation (DI), criticizing innovation (CI), and improving and presenting innovation (IPI), iv) roles of the students and instructors, v) learning media and resources, and vi) measurement and evaluation of the learning which verified the quality at a high level, and 3) results of model implementation - students had curriculum knowledge, innovative thinking ability, and achievement motivation after learning were higher than prior to learning at the .01, .05, and .01 level of significance in sequence. The results show that the learning management model, developed by researcher, possessed appropriateness and applied to use in developing students’ learning quality. Keywords: Phenomenon–Based Learning, Design Thinking, Curriculum Knowledge, Innovative Thinking

Abstract
This research aims to 1) study problems and needs in learning management of Curriculum Design and Development (CDD) course, 2) develop learning management model by integrating Phenomenon – Based Learning (PhenoBL) approach and Design Thinking Process (DTP), and 3) study results of learning management model implemented. Participants were 3 groups – 1) target groups who gave data about problems and needs were 20 undergraduate students, 4 major instructors, and 3 administrators, 2) target group who evaluated the quality of model was 6 experts, and 3) experimental sample group was 30 second year undergraduate students from The Faculty of Education, Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand who registered for the CDD course in the first semester of 2018 academic year. This section of students had mixed majors. They were chosen by cluster random sampling. This research was operated based on research and development (R&D) process. Research findings found that 1) students did not have important basic knowledge and were assigned to a lot of tasks in each of the courses. Major instructors and administrators identified that course instructor must organize learning to enhance curriculum understanding and develop achievement motivation of students, 2) learning management model, developed by researcher, consisted of 6 components - i) purpose, ii) principles, iii) process in 5 stages - considering phenomenon (CP), analyzing related knowledge (AK), designing innovation (DI), criticizing innovation (CI), and improving and presenting innovation (IPI), iv) roles of the students and instructors, v) learning media and resources, and vi) measurement and evaluation of the learning which verified the quality at a high level, and 3) results of model implementation - students had curriculum knowledge, innovative thinking ability, and achievement motivation after learning were higher than prior to learning at the .01, .05, and .01 level of significance in sequence. The results show that the learning management model, developed by researcher, possessed appropriateness and applied to use in developing students’ learning quality.
Keywords: Phenomenon–Based Learning, Design Thinking, Curriculum Knowledge, Innovative Thinking
Introduction
Office of the Higher Education Commission has determined a qualification standard framework for higher education as a guideline for the education management of each curriculum in creating university graduates of virtue and quality with the readiness to serve the community. Five learning outcomes were determined: 1) moral and ethics 2) knowledge 3) cognitive skills 4) interpersonal relationship skills and responsibility and 5) mathematical analytical thinking skills, communication skills, and information technology skills. Each curriculum can determine additional learning outcomes to reflect the specific identity of each science (Office of the Higher Education Commission, 2017). For the group of the Education field, the 6th additional learning outcome was determined: Learning management skills, which are the specific identities of Professional Teacher Graduates. All of the curriculum in the group of the Education field needs to include all of the 6 learning outcomes to connect the alignment from curriculum’s philosophy, curriculum’s subjective, special characteristics of a graduate, structure of the curriculum, courses, measurements and evaluations, and educational quality assurance at the curriculum level (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2018; Piruntananon, Jongchaikit, & Neelakup, 1999; Wongyai, 2011), including any curriculum with controlled professions, which needs to be analyzed and to create a curriculum in accordance with those professions’ commission’s standards to create graduates with ability and quality according to the learning outcomes and standards determined.
The Bachelor of Education Program under the Faculty of Education of Chiang Mai University (CMU) has created a program with the connection of all the 6 above-mentioned outcomes. Furthermore, the courses under the Specification Courses in the Core-course group (Teaching Profession) of the program were designed in accordance with all of the 11 knowledge standards of Teaching Professions of the Teacher’s Council of Thailand. One of the important knowledge standards of Teaching Profession of the Teacher’s Council of Thailand is the 2nd standard of the Curriculum Development by the Academic Division under the Faculty of Education of CMU, creating the Curriculum design and development (CDD) course in accordance with this mentioned 2nd standard and has managed this individual knowledge for students of each major for the accurate knowledge and understanding in relevant to the curriculum and the development of the curriculum. Furthermore, to own the ability to create or design curriculum in accordance with the standards determined by the Teacher’s Council of Thailand. However, according to the last learning-teaching evaluation of this course, which was summarized into a report by Intasingh et al. (2018), shows that students still misunderstand the meaning and level of the curriculum, incomplete determination of the importance of the factors affecting the curriculum development. They are unable to connect the curriculum’s philosophy of the various educational levels, which reflect the fact that student’s curriculum knowledge (Steiner, 2018; Chookumpang, 2016) remains lower than expected. Additionally, students have many limitations in practicing the design of the curriculum’s innovations i.e. they are not able to imagine the finished work, the designed curriculum lacks the connection with the purpose and the created contents, lack of clear work plan organization, taking too long to create certain elements of the curriculum, some of the created curriculums are unrealistically impractical imagination and still lacks the connection between community’s reality and the society, etc. This shows that students have innovative thinking ability at an unsatisfying level, as the innovative thinking is an integration ability of using holistic knowledge, leading to the problem-solving product design or work pieces or important questions asked through the systematic work process and own a thorough inspection of all aspects, thus in the possible dimension, worthwhileness, freshly innovative and able to be used in real-life in accordance with the problematic situation or in the context of such events (De Jager, Muller & Roodt, 2013; Raviv, Barak & VanEpps, 2009). The work of students which were evaluated with such low scores may be the root for most of the students to become weary and bored in this course. They may give less importance to the learning, and they may have less achievement motivation (Ambrose et al., 2010; Panich & Susinvorn, 2018; Kuha, 2018), which is bad for students’ education.
The researcher, as the instructor of the CDD course, therefore, is interested in developing the learning management model in this course to promote students with the level of curriculum knowledge, innovative thinking ability, and achievement motivation. An interesting concept to be used in the development of the learning management model in the 21st century is the Phenomenon-Based Learning (PhenoBL), which is learning by using phenomenon in the reality as a starting point of the learning process for the students to notice with various aspects interdisciplinary (Mahavijit, 2017, 2019). Questions or problems were created in order to lead to answers and problem-solving with the method of inquiry. Using problems as base or project from the concept of constructivism and integrating the scope of learning to field studies and the online world, combining with the use of technology, focusing on the 21st century’s developing skills by linking the studied phenomena with various sciences, enabling students to become up-to-date with the changing data in the digital age, helps create learning inspiration for students to be able to develop one’s own work successfully and develop to become creators of knowledge and creators of innovations (Silander, 2015; Symeonidis & Schwarz, 2016; Butgatanyoo, 2018). Furthermore, another important process to be used to develop the ability of innovative thinking of the students is the Design Thinking Process (DTP), which is a creative problem-solving process by focusing on humans as the center, leading to the creation of systematic innovation using various imagination from groups of people of different original majors of the created innovation, which will be used to improve the solutions until the achievement is a perfect innovation (Kitjawan, 2018). Hasso-Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford (d.school) has presented 5 steps of DTP: 1) Empathize 2) Define 3) Ideate 4) Prototype, and 5) Test (Sakama, Mori & Iba, 2017; Vianna et al., 2015), which is a systematic process of operation or development of innovation for the solution according to the needs of the target groups or helps solving problems in various situations precisely via a multi-dimensional fully-covered aspect, which may help to develop students’ learning quality while attending this course.

Therefore, the researcher is interested in developing the learning management model by integrating PhenoBL approach and DTP, using the study data on the condition of the problems and needs to manage the learning from the students, major instructors and the administrators to develop a learning management model suitable for the context and purpose of the CDD course to promote the curriculum knowledge for students, which is consistent with the 2nd learning outcome of the higher education qualification framework of knowledge, to promote the innovative thinking ability, which is consistent with the 3rd learning outcome, cognitive skills, and to promote the achievement motivation, which is consistent with the 1st learning outcome, morals and ethics, which elevates the learning quality of student teachers to the level of readiness to graduate as innovative teachers to serve the community, society and the country.

Key words: Phenomenon–Based Learning, Design Thinking, Curriculum Knowledge, Innovative Thinking
     
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