The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

Development of a Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic (VAK) Model-Based Classroom Management Toolkit for Pre-Service Teachers

Maria Angelica C. Mugot,


Classroom management is essential in students’ learning. This embedded mixed study intended to develop a classroom management toolkit for pre-service teachers based on Fleming’s (2001) visual, auditory and kinesthetic (VAK)model. The activities focus was for pre-service teachers teaching Preschool to Grade 3 classes. In developing the toolkit, Analysis, Design, Development,Implementation and Evaluation or ADDIE model was used. The evaluation of implementers and experts was done through the use of the researcher-modified VREP by Simon and White (2011). Descriptive statistics was used to treat the data gathered. The general findings showed that the toolkit “exceeds the expectations” of the implementers and majority of the implementers found the toolkit “effective”,“useful” and “helpful.” From the findings of the study, it is, thus, recommended that higher educational institutions that train pre-service teachers may utilize the developed VAK model based-classroom management toolkit. Moreover, teachers in early childhood may use the toolkit. Future studies may plan out for the improvement in terms of more classroom management strategies in the VAK model-based classroom management toolkit for pre-service teachers.

Through several interviews and observations, both early childhood education pre-service teachers and
seasoned early childhood educators have attested to struggles in classroom management. Past researches on classroom management revealed that it has consistently ranked on top as one of the most difficult problems experienced by neophyte teachers and this includes pre-service teachers (Clunies-Ross, Little & Kienhuis,2008; Borden, 2013). Pre-service teachers experience difficulties in applying what they have believed to be effective from their theoretical learning to what they are
experiencing in reality which includes classroom management (Akiyama, 2009). One of the main factors contributing to the challenge of employing classroom management among early childhood education pre-service teachers is the diversity of young learners. The challenge experienced by early childhood education pre-service teachers double-up with the responsibility of dealing with young
learners’ differences and at the same time, providing classroom experiences that will be developmentally appropriate to the young learners. Young learners, unique as they are, differ in many aspects in their way of learning. It is claimed that a significant factor leading to these young learners’ academic success and manifestation of lesser challenging behaviors is classroom management (Rosas & West, 2008; Conner, 2015). Two of the main ideas about an individual’s learning preference state that these preferences influence a learner’s behaviour towards
learning and taking these preferences strategically in teaching, could positively gear towards better learning (Fleming & Baume, 2006). An understanding of employing proper classroom management techniques leads to the success and effectiveness of the teacher’s instruction and
would also prevent misbehaviors in class (Alexander,2014). This study takes these points with the intent of developing a classroom management toolkit based on the learners’ learning styles. On the learners’ learning styles, this study focused on the learners’ preferred learning styles according to
Neil Fleming’s (2001) Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic model preferences for learning or the VAK Model. Visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning preferences have been recognized as “three of the most popular learning preferences” (Gilakjani, 2012). Though it has been lately recognized as Visual, Auditory, Read/Write and Kinesthetic (VARK) model, the researcher finds the read/ write preference as part of the visual preference; hence, the use of VAK model as the anchor of the study has been
decided.This study aimed to provide a guide for early childhood education pre-service teachers through appropriate classroom management techniques harmonious to that of their learners’ preference through the development of a relevant toolkit. The development of a VAK model-based classroom management toolkit for early childhood education pre-service teachers will
be the end product of this study.

Key words: Classroom Management, Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic (VAK) Model, Toolkit
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