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Improving the Quality of Life and Social Development of the Donaranyick Community in Praksriracha District, Chainat Province


Staporn Tavornatvat, Pattaraporn Kitchainukoon,


Abstract

The purposes of this research were: 1) To study the life quality of the Donaranyick Community. 2) To prepare the community plan for improving quality of life, 3) To prepare an action plan to guide improvements in the quality of life at the Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat. A purposive sampling method was used to collect a sample comprised of 60 households; community members assisted to derive the sample. The data collection was conducted by interview, questionnaire and AIC techniques. The data were analyzed by means of percentage, means and standard deviations. The results of the study were as follows: 1) Opportunities in education and professions of youth. In Sankhaburi Amphoe the educational system provides levels of study from kindergarten, primary, secondary and university levels. 2) Physical development of the community. Electricity, water supply, and roads are available; irrigation canals are also present for farmers.3) Solutions for poverty. Committees of local sectors and headman work with the local community, the temple, and educational institutions (i.e. Chandrakasem Rajabhat Center). 4) Accessibility services of the government. The decentralized local government works with the district administration and the local government organizations. 5) Accessibility services of local and government sectors. There are a lot of services available to support the local community. 6) Community participation by vocalizing opinions. “Yiam Ban Yam Yen”, which is the community forum, is held to criticize and plan the community plan every year. In addition, the community action plan was followed up by the addressing quality of life and community issues. The first priorities were the “Purposive Ground Project” in village 7 and the “Rice Drying Ground Project” in village 8. The action plan covered the meetings, public relations, as well as the elderly community activities. Furthermore, the “Purposive Ground Project” and the “Rice Drying Ground Project” were opened for the community members, Chandrakasem Rajabhat Center and Arunyig temple. The levels of satisfaction of the projects were at the high level for every item.

Introduction

  In 2002, Chandrakasem Rajabhat University (Chainat Campus) was established as an adjunct campus for Chandrakasem Rajabhat University by using 500 hectors of public land of Don Aranyik  Community,  Phraek  Si  Racha  Tambon,  Sankhaburi Amphoe,  Chainat. Concurrently, Mr. Araya Wiwatwanich, the former governor of Chainat, supported expansion of educational opportunities to address the needs of local people. In Chainat, many residents and officers wanted to study further with undergraduate education. Moreover, they desired more  accelerated  studies  in  order  to  fit  their  studies  with  their  projected  career  paths. Therefore,  the  governor  found  this  place  suitable  to  open  the  university  and  provide convenient education proximal to Chainat (Chainat Campus, 2011).  

The Chainat branch of Chandrakasem Rajabhat University has already successfully and renovated the area. From an examination of 316 acres of the university’s land, it was found that 43 people invaded the land for their dwellings and used the area for farming.   A  committee,  appointed  by  the  marshal  of  Sankhaburi Amphoe  from  the  Department  of Public  Sankhaburi Agricultural  Land,  worked  with  the  headman  to  evaluate  the  entire property. To pay compensation and clear out the area, the total budget of 89,000 baht was required. Pravost Sinpattanchai, the abbot of Sa Mai Daeng temple, was the associate dean and  donated  at  Bank  for Agriculture  and Agricultural  Cooperatives. After  receiving compensation and the following demolition, most of invaders moved out of the area during October 2003-April 2004. Later, the Chainat Campus of Chandrakasem Rajabhat University established a rice farming community for farming during the three seasons.  

From the survey of the problem around Chandrakasem Rajabhat University (Chainat Campus) it was found that the conflicts of the community were as follows: 1) There were inequalities in harvesting, 2) The people could not obtain the appropriate farming rights, and 3) The people saw vacant areas and planted crops without permission. Thus, these problems brought conflict into the community. Even though the university took actions to zone the area for the education, conflicts still arose between the people in the community. Moreover, a lack of trust in the university and the government organizations occurred and the problem did not cooperate in the community forums and meetings (The chairman of Preakpattan, 2012).

  Apart from these reasons, the researcher aimed at improving the quality of life and social  development  of  the  Donaranyick  Community  in  Praksriracha  District,  Chainat Province. This research will be able to reduce the conflicts of the community by removing invalid occupants from the land and by helping the community to understand their needs to develop the area surrounding the university as well as the government sectors. 

 In addition, this research aimed to teach the people in the community the community plan  and  develop  cooperation  in  order  to  offer  the  budget  to  private  or  government organizations and develop the community in the future.

Objectives 

  1. To study the quality of life at the Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.
  2. To prepare a community plan to improve the quality of life of the society at Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.
  3. To prepare an action plan to guide effort to improve the quality of the society at Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.

 

Research Scope

  1)  Population and sample group

  A sample group of 60 households was derived from those living in Don Aranyik Community, comprised of village numbers 7 and 8, at Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.

  2)  Content

    This paper focused on six indicators of quality of life:

    1)  Opportunities in the education and professions of youth.

    2)  Physical development of the community.

    3)  Solutions for poverty.

    4)  Accessibility services of government.

    5)  Accessibility services of local and government sector.

    6)  Community participation by vocalizing opinions.

 

Methodology

  Population and Sampling group

  The  population  in  this  study  was  comprised  of  community  leaders,  officers  and residents of the Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat. In addition, the people were the group which moved their dwellings on account of the land deal that established the university. There were a total of 871 households and 3,622 people (The chairman of the community, 2012).

  The sample group in this paper was the officers and people who lived at the Don Aranyik Community and that moved their dwellings because of the zoning of the land for the university. The headman and the chairman of the community in the village numbers 7 and 8 were responsible for the discussion. The focus group was composed of five groups, including seven people from the two villages. Respondents were selected by the community leaders by purposive sampling.

  Instrumentation

  The instrumentation in this study was comprised of three items as follows:

  1. The  focus  group  discussion  addressed  the  six  indicators  of  quality  of  life: 

1) Opportunity in the education and professions of youth.

 2) Physical development of the community.

 3)  Solutions  for  poverty. 

4) Accessibility  services  of  the  government.

 5) Accessibility services of local and government sectors, and 6) Community participation.

  1. The techniques of bamboo ladder used to measure the quality of life during the past, the present and into the future.
  2. The Project of Community Development Satisfaction Index

  Data Collection

  1. The  study  and  collection  of  the  secondary  data  entailed  the  following:  the community plan, the qualitative data, the education, the environment, the economy, the role of the government sector in the community, the usefulness and the accessibility into the media, as well as the appearance.
  2. The focus group discussion concentrated on the six quality of life indicators. In addition, the bamboo ladder technique was used to measure the life quality during the past, the present and into the future of the participants in the focus group discussion.
  3. The  results  of  the  focus  group  discussion  were  used  as  the  primary  data  for developing the community plan.
  4. The  community  development  plan  was  implemented  by  the  community;  the research team served as consultants during the operation and evaluated the satisfaction of the community plan.
  5. Research conclusions were formed based on the results.

  Data Analysis

  1. In the descriptive statistics, the f bamboo ladder technique and the project of community development satisfaction index were analyzed by mean and standard deviation
  2. In the content analysis, the content of the focus group discussion was interpreted and summed up with the objectives of the research by the typology and taxonomy of the six quality of life indicators.

 

Results

  1. The  study  the  quality  of  life  at  the  Don Aranyik  Community,  Phraek  Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.

  In the focus group discussion, there were 69 people from the sample group (98.57%). It concluded the following:

    1.1  Opportunities in education and professions of youth

    In the past, the stage was at 5.95 and the stage in the present is at 7.66. Moreover, the stage in the future is projected to be at 8.90. The education system in Sankhaburi Amphoe provides education in kindergarten, primary, secondary and university levels. In the past, the educational  opportunities  were  fewer  and  the  financial  status  of  the  parents  was  lower. Notwithstanding,  the  young  people  still  obtained  knowledge  and  expertise  required  of professionals.

    At present, the attitudes of the people emphasize education. The youth not only obtain good education, but also focus on the indigenous wisdom. In the future, both the local and government sector will emphasize education at all levels in order to provide easier access to education. In addition, the young people have the opportunity to show their potentials for the increased competition.

    1.2  The physical development of the community

    In  the  past,  the  stage  was  at  4.90  and  the  stage  in  the  present  is  at  6.88. Furthermore, the stage in the future is projected to be at 8.90. The current infrastructure facilitates the physical environment and more conducive to agriculture.

    In  the  past,  infrastructure  was  insufficient  and  did  not  adequately  develop electricity, water supply and roads. Nowadays, the development of infrastructure has resulted in improved electricity, the water supply, roads, as well as the allocation of irrigation canals. On  the  other  hand,  the  areas  of  irrigation,  especially  proximal  to  the  roads,  cannot  be implemented due to dirt roads near the irrigation canal. Even though it has not been formally addressed, the people expect that this will be improved in the future. 

    1.3  The problem-solving of poverty and build the strength for the community

 In the past, the level was at 5.95, the level of the present is at 6.14, and the level predicted in the future is at 7.80. The local sector and the headman have been meeting with the local community, the temple, and the education institution to develop agriculture and professions.

    In  the  past,  the  majority  of  people  were  farmers  and  prioritized  careers  over education. Even though income of farmers is typically lower than other professions, the way of the rural community is very generous and farmers provide assistance to one another.

    At present, there are a lot of the private and government sectors developing the professions of the future. Moreover, it provides an opportunity for the elderly to work in order to allow them to generate income and reduce their reliance upon their grandchildren.

    1.4  The inequitable practice by the state power

    The  level  of  the  past  was  at  4.66,  the  level  of  the  present  is  at  7.00,  and  the predicted  future  level  is  at  8.45. The  decentralization  of  local  governance  has  entailed cooperation between the district administration and the local government organizations. The government provides equitable services for the people.

    In the former, the accessibility of the public service with the government sector was less; therefore the people did not approach it. The current distributions of community services  are  more  and  these  services  listen  to  the  demands  of  the  community. Notwithstanding, the occupancy of public area is due to a lack of understanding and lower participation in the community forums. In the future, it will be necessary to emphasize the participation of the people in order to listen and attend to their needs.

    1.5  Accessibility services of local and government sectors

    In the past, the stage was at 3.33 and the current stage at 7.71. The future stage is estimated to be at 8.33. The decentralized government, as well as the local and government organizations, serves ubiquitous people.

    In  the  former,  there  was  lower  accessibility  to  the  fringe  benefits  (including medical insurance and allowances) of the government organization due to the limited budget. However, at present access to infrastructure, such as electricity and tap water, is typically easier than the past. One exception is the irrigation canal, which is insufficient to meet the needs  of  all  areas.  In  the  future,  the  importance  of  decentralized  local  governance  will increase in order to address the various benefits to the people.

    1.6  Community participation by vocalizing opinions

    In the previous time, the level was at 4.90 and the level of the present is at 6.28. Furthermore, the level in the future is projected to be at 8.23, respectively. “Yiam Ban Yam Yen”, which is the community forum, is held to develop, criticize and modify the community plan for the local people and the education institution.

    In the past, the importance of the government’s work was less. For this reason, the solutions for problems did not respond to the needs of the community. However, the chairman of the community proposed the plan because of the contemporary low meeting attendance.

    In  the  future,  the  advancement  of  technology  will  facilitate  communication between  the  government  and  people  and  will  allow  vocalization  of  the  needs  of  the community.

  1. The preparation of the community plan to improve quality of life at the Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.   The brainstorm session to prepare the community plan provided the following:

  In  the  village  number  7  at  the  Don Aranyik  Community,  the  people  prepared  a community plan that included five objectives: build the purposive ground project, improve the elderly activity, provide benefits to the disadvantaged people, and build a knowledge center as well as a knowledge management system. The Purposive Ground Project received the most votes from the people.

  In the village number 8, people offered the following ten objectives: add a budget for the elderly people, provide unlimited amounts of rice, engage in roadwork, build a broadcast center, repair the rice drying ground project, meet with government officers, and build a knowledge center, clinic, and park. The Rice Drying Ground Project received the most votes.

  For the project with the activity corporates with the researchers from Chandakasem Rajabhat University, the community and Arunyik Temple in developing and selecting the community plan by using AIC technique.

  1. Preparation  of  the  action  plan  to  improve  the  quality  of  life  at  the  Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.

    3.1  Purposive Ground Project

    The proposed ground has a width of one meter, a length of 15 meters and the roof has a height of three meters. The committee of the community, the headman, the chairman of the community and the people enforced this project together. The level of satisfaction of the project was at the high to very high level.

    3.2  Rice Drying Ground Project

    The  rice  drying  ground  project  is  operated  by  improving  the  entire  area  by smoothening the surfaces. The proposed ground has a width of 20 meters and a length of 20 meters. The level of satisfaction with the project was at the high level.

 

 

Figure 1  The model to improve the quality of life and social development of the community.

Discussion

  1. The findings of the quality of life at the Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat

    1.1  Accessibility of education and development of the youth

    From the report, it was found kindergarten, primary, secondary, and undergraduate levels of education were provided in Sankhaburi Amphoe. It is interesting to note that the largest number of people graduated from primary school (57%), secondary school (28%), university  (3%),  as  well  as  the  non-formal  educational  institutions  (0.5%).  Furthermore, almost all of the people were farmers, employees and merchandisers. 

    Almost all of the local people had sufficient employment and revenue to support their lives and university education, but some of the local people lacked the enthusiasm required for university-level studies. The opportunity of education in the urban community was  higher  because  of  the  more  competitive  rates  and  expenses. Therefore,  the  people selected  the  chance  to  work  in  order  to  provide  for  higher  expenses.  The  Royal Thai Government Gazette (2007) further mentions that the right to free education is no less than   12 years of study. The disabled people and the poor are granted the same rights and support from the government to have an equal education.

    1.2  The physical development of the community

    The communities left the public land. They received appropriate compensation and bought =new land in order to establish their dwellings near the irrigation canals and the commercial buildings. The houses were equipped with electricity, water pipes, as well as roads that were more convenient than other communities. The Department of Lands (2011) mentions that the public land means the land is operated by the government organization; public land has been conserved for the people appropriately during the present and the past. In  addition,  no  people  are  permitted  of  occupying  the  land  without permission  from  the government. 

    1.3  Solutions for community poverty 

    The agriculturists, who have their own lands, can generate income and buy the machines, while others have not high income and they use village funds and bank loans. Some farmers also have  additional  professions, for instance, merchandising, agricultural processing as well as raising livestock.

    Thailand has a high level of economic disparity among the people, similar to countries  in  Latin America.  Income  inequalities  have  been  a  rather  big  problem  for  the society. (Somchai et.al, 2005)

    1.4  The inequitable practices of the state

    The headman, the village headman, as well as the chairman of the community are always  selected  by  the  people  in  the  local  politics  to  be  the  representatives  due  to  their familiarity. For this reason, they request projects to address the community’s needs. If the representatives of the community differ in their point of views with the local politicians, they will not be the representatives of the community.    In the social life, however, in the framework of Foucault, it means that power  is  related  to  the  networking  opportunities  and  is  sensitive  to  the  state  of  the  society   (Chairath, 2008).

    1.5  Accessibility services of local and government sectors

    Every household has electricity as well as the tap water access, yet the irrigation canal near the road is not convenient for the people in the community.     Furthermore, “Yiam Ban Yam Yen” is the project of the local hospital that is organized by the local community. It maintains the health and wellness project for the local community and seeks to improve the welfare of community members.

    Maslow proposed a framework of human needs, Maslow’ Hierarchy of Needs Theory,  which  he  divided  into  six  themes:  1)  Physiological  Needs,  2)  Safety  Needs,   3)  Love  and  belongingness  Needs,  4)  Esteem  Needs  and  5)  Self Actualization  Needs.   (Sucha, 2003)

    1.6  Community participation by vocalizing opinions

    A  forum  is  held  every  year  and  the  inspection  is  from  the  community development officer. When the community requests the infrastructure, the officer considers the priorities. Notwithstanding, it is not covered in the budget because of its excessive costs; thus, it not every request is possible to address.

    In the framework proposed by Amstein, however, the participation of the people for  development  consists  of  eight  components:  1)  Direct  Manipulation,  2)  Therapy,   3)  Informing,  4)  Consultation,  5)  Placation,  6)  Partnership,  7)  Delegated  Power  and   8) Citizen Control (Amstein, 1969) (cited Parichar et.al, 2006)

  1. Results  of  the  action  plan  to  improve  quality  of  life  at  the  Don Aranyik

Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.

  From the action plan in the village number 7, the ground was used the center by the community  for  the  following  purposes:  meetings,  public  relation,  as  well  as  the  elderly community activities.

  In  past,  the  rice  drying  ground  of  village  number  8  was  useless  because  it  was defective; thus, the local government used the rice drying ground for parking and the activity area. For the action plan, the community proposed a plan that is relevant to their needs of the community.

    Anek et.al (2014) stated that action research consists of participatory research with  an  action  component,  and  includes  qualitative  research.  In  addition,  to  obtain  new knowledge and solve the problems of the community, the research team, community, and the local people participated in the research process. For instance, the phases of plan, do, check and  action  were  accomplished  by  facilitating  the  learning  process  of  the  community, maintaining people-centered development and solving the problem-learning process.

  1. The action plan for the community plan to improve the quality of life at the Don Aranyik Community, Phraek Si Racha Tambon, Sankhaburi Amphoe, Chainat.

    From the action plan at the Don Aranyik Community, villages 7 and 8, the two projects for the community were as follows: the purposive ground project and the rice drying ground project. These projects involve cooperation from the local community, Chandrakasem Rajabhat University and Aranyik Temple. The conflict group, who moved from another land, consisted of 43 people whose dwellings were demolished. This group has already received compensation, such as jobs and areas for planting houses. 

    Moreover,  the  meeting  was  held  by  the  rice  community,  the  researcher  from Chandrakasem Rajabhat University (Chainat Campus), and the temple. The following topics were  discussed:  the  rice  community,  the  action  plan  for  the  community,  as  well  as  the purposive ground project. Later, they cooperated with Chandrakasem Rajabhat University (Chainat Campus) and to illustrate their projects as well as negotiate their understandings by the activity group. Therefore, the conflict decreased and contributed to their understandings of  one  another.  This  activity  not  only  improved  quality  of  life,  but  also  developed  a cooperative relationship among Chandrakasem Rajabhat University (Chainat Campus), the community, and the temple to acquire the understanding and the participation in required to strengthen the community.

    Prachasan (MPP.) stated that community development is sustainable development; in  other  words,  it  opens  the  opportunity  for  the  people  and  the  representatives  of  the organization in the local community to participate and assume responsibility for determining the community’s development, deciding the future of the community, and sharing the benefits together.

 

References

Anek, C. and Pannutch, C. (2014).  Participation Action Research. Retrieved from http://business.payap.ac.th/ba-km/km%20

Chairath, J. (2008). Critical Political Sciences . (Third Edition). Bangkok : Thammasart University Press. Chandrakasem  Rajabhat  University  (Chainat  Campus).  (2003).  The  annual  report  2012. Chandrakasem Rajabhat University.

Ministry  of  Interior.  (2011).  The  public  land.  Retrieved  from  http://www.dol.go.th/dol/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&i d=32&

Prachasan,S.  (N.D.). The  technique  of  the  cooperation  process.  Leading  and  Learning Organization.

Royal Thai Government  Gazette.(2007). Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007. No.124 47a. Issued on August 24.

Somchai et.al. (2005).  The disparity of economy  with  the  conflict in the society: Theory Experience  and  the  reconciliation.  Bangkok: Thailand  Development  Research Institute.

Sucha,  J.  (2003).  Development  Phycology.  Doctor  Book.  267.  19-27.The  chairman  of Preakpattan. (2012). Interview. March 16, 2012.

 


Key words: development, quality of life, society, community plan
     
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