The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

The Development of Morality and Ethics in Student Volunteers by Teamwork Activities in the Technical Secretary Course

Pawina Spiller,


The purpose of this research was to study the ethical behaviour and the development of ethics in volunteer students through teamwork activities. The test students were 38 students who were enrolled in the technical secretary course. The research instrument was a questionnaire with a reliability of 0.97. Statistics used in the study were the frequency, percentage, average and standard deviation. The findings were: 1) The majority of the sample, 92.11 percent, was girls. They participated in group activities 5-8 times, which accounted for 44.74 percent. 2) The students were evaluated by measuring the percentage of ethical behaviours. Overall it increased from 36.18 percent to 55.48 percent after participating in the program. It was found that the ethical behaviour of the volunteers, students of the technical secretary course, overall was χ = 3.67. When considering individual items, it was found that they would help those inferior, in the overall highest level χ = 4.24. And when considering students’ behaviour, ethics and volunteerism were on the high level; the students would devote their time to helping others. Also they participated to benefit social development and tried to help the others as soon as possible. The groups were willing to work for the public, although they were disadvantaging themselves. They paid attention to the problems of society with enthusiasm, and were generous and kind to others. They sacrificed their time to provide social services willingly and behaved as good examples to others as well, especially to students who volunteered only at a moderate level. The students volunteered to work for others without expecting anything in return, because they wanted to develop a better society.


  The  National  Education Act  of  2542,  Section  30  requires  that  schools  develop effective teaching and learning processes, including encouraging teachers to conduct research to develop a learning process for the students at each level of education (Mationsl Education Act,  1999). The  resulting  research  will  gain  attention,  make  teachers  more  earnest  and focused,  and  gain  attention  from  the  country. The  research  will  also  strengthen  learner-centered  educational  models  for  instructors,  students,  and  policy  makers.  

Such  learner-centered  models  will  helps  students  improve  their  problem  solving, management,  learning  and  development  skills  and  resources.  In  addition,  this  style  of teaching will also cultivate values and desirable characteristics in students and guide students to  autonomous  development  of  unique  strengths  and  interests. An  interpretation  of  the Education Act  of  2542  is  that  teachers  are  mandated  to  reform  themselves  and  develop professional aspects, such as academic research. This is particularly true for instructors at the university level, who are responsible for the quality of graduating students who will serve their  society.  In  light  of  this,  researchers  realized  the  importance  of  ethical  aspects volunteering can nurture to assist student development. Thus this research examined the development of morals and ethics in student volunteers who were enrolled in the technical secretary course and participated in teamwork activities. 



  This study aimed to study the ethical aspects of student volunteers.


Conceptual Framework

  1. The teaching and learning activities using teamwork. 

  Meunkid (2011); Kecharananta (2002), and Laohanan (1997) have found that mutual assistance among team members, reduction in competition within teams, and trust and fidelity are essential components of team work. This is consistent with Wongpinpetch et al. (2010) that  found  student  volunteers  gained  incentives  such  as  social  support  and  positive relationships (p<0.05) Similarly, Wongpitak and Leesatruphai (2013) found that social factors affected  the  behavior  of  the  Srinakharinwirot  University’s  student’s  at  the  0.01  level  of statistical  significance  Meesomsap  (2010)  found  that  mutual  respect,  interpersonal communication, and volunteer characteristics were essential for volunteers. 

  1. The moral and ethics in volunteer of students.

  Teamwork  activities  resulted  in  volunteering  moral  behavior  of  the  students.  Manoj (2011) found that concept of volunteering entailed sacrifice in order to improve the state of society. This is consistent with Wisalo (2007) that stated volunteerism encouraged prosocial desires in other people. This is in line with Pisuttisopon (2015) that stated that helping and supporting behaviors are related to the volunteer.


Figure 1  Conceptual framework



  1. Population and samples design

    The  population  consisted  of  92  third-year  students  enrolled  in  the  technical secretary  course  and  studying  in  the  Medical  Secretary  program  in  the  Faculty  of Management  Science  during  the  third  semester  of  the  2014  academic  year.  Of  these,  38 students were evaluated for their volunteering moral behavior.  

  1. Measurement and data collection design.

    The process of creating the query.

    1)  Study the concepts of ethics and volunteerism, teamwork, concepts, theories and principles to guide the formulation of questions in the survey questionnaire.

    2)  Study Objectives and concepts in the study to define the parameters for the query.

    3)  Create comprehensive questionnaire variables defined in the study.

    4)  Check the IOC questionnaire by five experts to be between 0.5-1.0. 

    5)  Determine the reliability  (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the questionnaire through delivery to thirty selected students.

    6)  Complete  the  questionnaire  validated  quality  content  validity  and  the confidence to use it.

    The observation tool was used for collecting data used in the study to observe the moral behavior in volunteer activities during teamwork. The process was:

    1)   Study and prepare for the observation.

    2)   Collect data for a reflection on the performance of the students’ teamwork.


  Data Collection

    The study included data from both primary and secondary sources, as follows.

  1.    Gather information from documents, books and online information, including research articles related to ethics and volunteerism and teamwork, theory of documentation and  research  related  to  the  development  of  ethics,  development  of  volunteerism,  and teamwork.
  2. Explore the basics of ethics and behavior of the student volunteer program for third-year medical students enrolled in the Technical Secretary course.
  3. Measure the moral behavior of student volunteers, via questionnaire, prior to participation in teamwork (Pretest).
  4. Record  observational  behavior,  ethics  and  volunteer  activities  of  students while working as a team. The instructors assign students to participate in activities and events that focus on working as a team to develop the ethical behavior of student volunteers.
  5. Collect information by questionnaire to measure the development of the moral behavior of student volunteers (Posttest).

  Data Analysis

    Data  was  analyzed  using  basic  statistics,  including  percentage,  average,  and standard deviation, by a computer program. 



  The purpose of the research was to study the ethical aspects of student volunteerism and  develop  moral  aspects  of  the  student  volunteer  activities  by  working  as  a  team.  

The results were as follows:

  At first the privacy of students

  Episode 1 The research found that the majority of respondents were females. 

   Episode 2 The study compared the two percentages of the ethical behavior of the volunteer students enrolled in courses Technical Secretary before and after participating in teamwork.

  The results showed that the students who participated in team work, showed more ethical behavior overall and provided more assistance to less fortunate people at the level Student behavior was moral and they devoted time to helping others to benefit society as a whole. They tried to help others as soon as possible, cooperated within their group, were willing to work for the common good despite personal interests, devoted attention to the problems  of  society,  were  eager  to  help  and  considerate  towards  others,  provided social services willingly, and behaved as good examples to others.

  The ethical behavior of the students who volunteered was at a moderate level for assisting others without expecting anything in return and satisfaction in developing a better social order.   

  Episode 3 Comments and suggestions about the activities of the ethical behavior of volunteers.

  The research found that student feedback on the event indicated development of ethical habits.

  1. Voluntary community development camp should be included with other subjects in order  to  encourage  teamwork  and  help  students  learn  to  work  with  more   

Ethical volunteering activities should be conducted every semester of the year. 


Conclusion and Discussion

  The study compared the behavior of the ethical aspects of volunteer students enrolled in the Technical Secretary course before and after participating in teamwork. Students find that ethical behavior of the volunteerism was improved following teamwork participation. This was because participating in teamwork required students to build trust among team members, eagerness to support colleagues in the group, trying to adapt to a recognized group, get  to  know  the  opinions  and  messages  of  others,  and  honor  each  other,  which  reduces interpersonal conflict. This allowed students to learn interpersonal skills and become ready to work together more. This is consistent with Manoj (2011) that found that the concept of volunteering entailed sacrifices to improve the state of society to make goodness gracious society and the expansive. The volunteering spirit has also been noted to increase the desire of others to engage in prosocial behavior (Wisalo, 2007). Pisuttisopon (2015) found that helping  and  supporting  concepts  were  related  to  volunteers While  Kecharananta  (2006), Laohanan (1997) have found that team members must mutually assist one another, reduce competition  within  their  group,  and  have  trust  and  faith  in  each  other’s  contributions assistance among members together. Reduce competition to outdo each other in group, the trust and faithful each other contributes to unity. Similarly, Wongpinpetch et al. (2010) found that student volunteers gained incentives, social support, and positive relationship between individuals  and  volunteers  at  the  0.05  level  of  statistical  significance. This  agrees  with Wongpitak and Leesattruphai (2013) that found that social factors can affect the behavior   of the  Srinakharinwirot  University’s  students at the 0.01 level of statistical significance. Meesomsap (2010) also found that mutual trust, respect for each other, and interpersonal communication were consistent characteristics of volunteers. 


  Suggestions for bringing research results to the user

  The moral development of students through volunteer activities and teamwork in the technical course in secretarial work resulted in increased ethical behavior of volunteers and skills related to working in teams. 

  Applying this intervention to university students will result in a better adaptation of the students for social interactions with others and help them to develop desirable skills such as the ability to work in teams and the propensity to volunteer.

  Suggestions for future research

  Carefully  study  the  factors  that  affect  the  moral  development  of  the  student volunteers.



Kecharananta, N., et al. (2006). Creating an effective team. Bangkok: Expernet Co., Ltd. 

Laohanan, S. (1997). Team building. Bangkok: DD Book store.

Manoj  K.  (2011).  The  meaning  of  life  and  volunteer  (Master’s  of  thesis).  Chiang  Mai University. Bangkok.

Meesomsap A. (2010). The relationship between the  team  work with the administration. Department of Education  Educational Service Area Office 1 Ayutthaya district. (Master’s of thesis). Pranakornsriayutthaya Rajabhat University. Bangkok.

National Education Act. (1999). National Education act B.E. 2542 (1999). Office of the National Education Commission; Office of the Prime Minister, Bangkok : Prig Wan Graphic Co., Ltd.

Pitsuttisopon P. (2015). what is the volunteer. Retrived from [2015, February 12] 

Wisalo,  P.  (2007).  Science  and  art  of  good  management,  Case  study  foundation  of Chihuahua. Bangkok: Prigwan Graphic Co., Ltd.  

Wongpitak T. and Leesattruphai C. (2013). Psychosocial factors that affect the behavior of the student volunteers. Srinakharinwirot University. Journal of Applied Arts. 64-73.



  Pawina Spiller

    Suan Dusit University

    295 Nakhon Ratchasima Road, Dusit, Dusit, Bangkok, 10300, Thailand


Key words: ethics of student volunteers, teamwork activities
This Month
Tel: (+66)2244-5280-2 Fax: (+66)2668-7460 Email: Copyright :
Design By