The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

The Effect of Constructive Patriotism on Constructive Thinking Ability in Historical Learning at Students of Senior High School Muhammadiyah Karanganyar Indonesia


Arief Syuhada Ginting1*, Hermanu Joebagio, Cicilia Dyah,


Abstract

Abstract This study analyzed the effect of constructive patriotism on constructive thinking ability in historical learning. The study used a quantitative research method with a descriptive correlational approach. To find out the effect of predictors on the dependent variable, the measurement was made by simple linear regression tests. The research sample consisted of 106 students at ages 16 to 18 years old which were taken by a purposive sampling technique in Senior High School Muhammadiyah 1 Karanganyar. The result show that there is a partial effect of constructive patriotism on constructive thinking ability with 18.88 percentage of correlation. It can be said that the constructive attitude of patriotism went hand in hand with the constructive thinking ability. The conclusion states that the attitude of constructive patriotism and constructive thinking ability are competencies that need to be taught to students by historical learning. Keywords: Constructive Patriotism, Constructive Thinking, Historical Learning.

Abstract
This study analyzed the effect of constructive patriotism on constructive thinking ability in historical learning. The study used a quantitative research method with a descriptive correlational approach. To find out the effect of predictors on the dependent variable, the measurement was made by simple linear regression tests. The research sample consisted of 106 students at ages 16 to 18 years old which were taken by a purposive sampling technique in Senior High School Muhammadiyah 1 Karanganyar. The result show that there is a partial effect of constructive patriotism on constructive thinking ability with 18.88 percentage of correlation. It can be said that the constructive attitude of patriotism went hand in hand with the constructive thinking ability. The conclusion states that the attitude of constructive patriotism and constructive thinking ability are competencies that need to be taught to students by historical learning.
Keywords: Constructive Patriotism, Constructive Thinking, Historical Learning.
Introduction
Patriotism is a personal feeling towards the welfare of the country and a willingness to sacrifice for the good of the country (Nathanson, 1993, p. 34-35). Patriotism in education is often associated with citizenship education and historical learning. The teaching of history and citizenship has traditionally centered on trivia stories about great men and powerful women as examples to inform and inspire children to imitate patriotic-like behavior in their lives. Besides, many examples of patriotic behavior are used in teaching history. The patriot is praised for loving their country. These patriots are like saints who serve as examples of good moral behavior (Haynes, 2009, p. xx).
When humanistic education tends to lead to patriotic forms. Meanwhile, historical learning is an important space for the transmission of patriotic values in school. At the beginning of the twentieth century, national history is included as compulsory material at every level of education with special emphasis on early schooling (Carretero, 2019, p. 10). Embedding patriotic attitudes in school through historical learning means strengthening citizenship and understanding democratic values to truly understand values in a state context. Teachers need to convey these values so that they can be understood through history (Straw, 2007). Brown (2006) argued that if social values are contextualized through history, then an understanding of contemporary citizenship tends to imply a level of historical knowledge.
The form of teaching that supports patriotic attitudes is taught through historical learning in Indonesia. Certainly, it is hoped that it is not teaching through the dominant narrative that tends to indoctrinate in the past. History teachers should encourage students to have critical thinking ability and even constructive thinking. Ideally, teaching history allows students to understand the discourse that is developing and can analyze and then utilize the memories of the past to develop the state and nation. Osler (2009) added that students need to understand that the story of history is always dynamic. Understanding and skills in history have implications for the interpretation of contemporary society. We equip students to develop skills for media literacy and broader political literacy. A representative example was shown by Osler (2009) by reconstructing how patriotism in teaching history in the United States after the World Trade Center Attack of 2001 and the London attack of 2006 which was linked to Islamophobia. Based on his research, Osler said that patriotism requires political commitment. The role of schools in fostering such political commitment was complicated because every effort to foster emotional attachment to students was not a unilateral process in which students or teachers passively accept feelings of caring or love for the nation. Each individual negotiates and interprets the curriculum. Therefore, patriotism and cosmopolitanism are key concepts that must be explored by teachers. Of course, teachers must use pedagogical strategies that are appropriate for the age of students. In this context, Osler (2009) states:
"What are the implications for teaching history? that political loyalty does not imply a general view of history and recognizes that historical narratives are always influenced by dominant social groups. Making history is complicated. Questions about power and interests and perspectives are central. In history class, the examination of primary historical sources allows students to develop critical skills which are, of course, important skills in a democracy. This is the power of historical education that will be lost if historical narratives about the values of unity will be promoted as a single dominant narrative. This is not an excuse to ignore aspects of national history or avoid subjects such as the growth and decline of a regime, but to recognize that there are competing truths and stories that students must
be encouraged to critically examine (p. 97).
Based on the theoretical framework above, the researcher argued that understanding patriotism not only results in a person who has a patriotic spirit but also encourage that person to have a critical and constructive mind. Patriotism in question is an attitude of flexible loyalty to power which is called constructive patriotism. The ability to think constructively is closely related to emotional handling, critical thinking, self-reflection, and optimism.
An understanding of patriotism and constructive thinking above has prompted this research to examine the relationship between constructive patriotism and constructive thinking ability in historical learning. Processing data results from both variables will show how students in school can understand the attitude of patriotism while having the ability to think constructively. This article aims at answering whether constructive patriotism is in the same direction or different from the constructive thinking abilities of students in school

Key words: Constructive Patriotism, Constructive Thinking, Historical Learning.
     
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