The ASEAN Journal of Education ASEAN Journal of Education

The Using of the Moodle e-Learning Management System of Suan Dusit University to Develop Digital Citizenship and Learning Achievement in Information Technology

Titiya Netwong,


The objectives of this research were: 1) to develop digital citizenship of Urban Environment and Industry program students utilizing by utilizing Moodle, an online learning management system, 2) to improve learning achievement by using Moodle, and 3) to determine the correlation between digital citizenship and learning achievement of students enrolled in the Urban Environment and Industry program. The sample consisted of 49 undergraduate students enrolled in the Urban Environment and Industry program who were registered in the Information Technology course during the 2012 academic year. The research instruments were the questionnaire for digital citizenship and a learning achievement test through e-Learning developed by Suan Dusit Rajabhat University. Data were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test dependent and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient. The results of the study were as follows: 1) digital citizenship increased by 15.l85% following use of e-Learning through Moodle, 2) learning achievement increased by 23.37% following use of e-Learning through Moodle, and 3) the correlation between digital citizenship and learning achievement was of a rather high level (r = 0.79).


  Currently, there are increasing levels of knowledge. Yet, there are still things highly important things that remain to be taught.  Our goal is to be able to invest in education and achieve high returns. Increasing the productivity and efficiency of learning is necessary.  Modern  learning  takes  less  time,  learning  occurs  faster,  allows  learners  to  have  the opportunity to share resources and ideas. The advancement of information technology has allowed for development of teaching. e-Learning is a form of learning that uses electronic media, online tutorials and activities through a network. Online learning allows the use of computers  as  tools  to  assist  learners  to  reach  their  goals  more  easily  and  quickly   (Online Learning, 2010). e-Learning is a hallmark of learning, the learner can access content anywhere, any time, create content, and perform various operations. The e-Learning system allows the evaluation of test knowledge. Online learning is one way of developing people. The students can learn anything, anywhere at any time. e-Learning allows the students to enjoy learning with an independent and flexible that decreases the time to learn by more than 50  percent,  and  costs  30  to  60  percent  less  than  traditional  education  and  training  (Netwong, 2013).

  When  it  comes  to  education  reform,  a  paradigm  consisting  of  a  well-designed process of learning between teachers and learners is necessary.  The paradigm proposes that the learning process is more important than knowledge, particularly the teacher’s personal knowledge,  and  learners  must  learn  together.  Students  in  the  new  century  can  obtain knowledge from a variety of sources, both in the conventional classroom environment and on the internet. To meet this unprecedented availability of knowledge, there must be a shift towards lifelong learning. To be effective, everyone must learn throughout life in order to continuously develop themselves (Virtual Environment, 2010).  .

  “Digital Citizenship” is one of the educational technology standards proposed by the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) to allow students to demonstrate their understanding of social issues, culture and humanity related to information technology, and  their ability to conduct themselves in an ethical and legal manner to safely and responsibility access information. These are important skills in learning in the 21st century learning skills, thinking and knowledge of ICT [4], [5].

  Suan Dusit Rajabhat University has been used to study a wide variety of information technology, especially e-Learning and the Learning Management System (LMS) Moodle for managing education courses online. The technology already exists to enhance teaching and learning.  e-Learning  is  an  easily  accessible  learning  platform  that  can  be  accessed  from various devices, including laptops, and can deliver a variety of educational resources such as e-books  (International  Society  for Technology  in  Education,  2005). Assessment  can  be conducted  online  using  e-Learning;  seeking  additional  documents  is  another  feature  of   e-Learning. It said that the introduction of e-Learning into the curriculum in order to develop the  digital  citizenship  of  learners  can  make  human  resources  with  skills  in  information technology critical to the development and progress towards the country.


Research Objectives

  1. To develop digital citizenship of students in Suan Dusit Rajabhat University’s Urban Environment by utilizing e-Learning with the Moodle learning management system.
  2. To improve learning achievement of students in Suan Dusit Rajabhat University’s Urban Environment by utilizing e-Learning with the Moodle learning management system  
  3. To determine the correlation between digital citizenship and learning achievement of students in the Urban Environment and Industry program.



  1. The population was students of Suan Dusit Rajabhat University who registered in Information Technology, during the 2012 academic year. 
  2. The sample group to this study consisted of 49 undergraduate students enrolled in the Urban Environment and Industry who were registered in the Information Technology course during the 2012 academic year. Students were obtained by simple random sampling from the 17 sections of the Information Technology course.
  3. Research Design and Data Collection

    3.1  One group pretest-posttest design was the research design in this study




    3.2  The experimental group learned by using e-Learning for 6 weeks; the steps were as follows:

      3.2.1  Providing learning and orientation: Students took the pretest of the questionnaire  for  digital  citizenship  and  a  learning  achievement  test  for  Information Technology. The instructor suggested rules and roles for e-Learning.

      3.2.2  Set learners and breaking the ice online (e-Profile, web board and forum): The instructor demonstrated the use of e-Learning by using familiar lesson and class members.  The  students’  provided  information  about  how  to  participate  in  e-Learning activities such as personal profile (e-Profile), online content, resource learning, website and online forum.

      3.2.3  Offer  knowledge  and  processing  the  learning  activity  (online content, resource learning and website): The instructor taught basic knowledge continuously, by example and a case study. The students’ discussed through the online forum and offered guidance on issues of the social culture.

      3.2.4  Review knowledge (blog, online text or chat): The students reviewed present concept information and ideas through blogs and asked and answered questions via online text.

      3.2.5  Knowledge application (blog): Activities focused on the application of  knowledge  in  other  situations  and  sharing  ideas. The  blog  demonstrated  the  value  of cooperative learning.

      3.2.6 Evaluate: The students discussed the summary results of the evaluation activities.

    3.3  When they finished learning by using e-Learning, the students completed the assessment of digital citizenship questionnaire and learning achievement test immediately.

    3.4  The test achievement was scored using 0-1 (Zero-One Method) – one point was awarded for any response and 0 for failure to respond. 

  1. Instrument

    4.1  Digital Citizenship Questionnaire

      4.1.1  The questionnaire for digital citizenship was composed of 2 parts: 1) a check list and 2) a rating scale. Two episodes were as follows: the first part, the check list, inquired about the basics of learning the gender and grade. The second part focused on digital citizenship and provided questions in five elements:  1) Understanding of social issues - 5 items. 2) Understanding of cultural issues - 6 items. 3) Understanding of the human issues - 5 items. 4) Ethical and legal channel - 5 items, and 5) the use of appropriate technology and lifelong learning - 8 items.  

      4.1.2  Creation and determination of the efficiency of the questionnaire for digital  citizenship  by  study  covered  the  measurement  of  digital  citizenship  within  the framework of the International Society of Technology in Education (ISTE). These guidelines assisted in preparation of the questionnaire for digital citizenship. Creation of queries on the issue: understanding of social issues, understanding of cultural issues, understanding of the human  issues,  ethical  and  legal  channel,  and  use  of  appropriate  technology  and  lifelong learning. The questionnaire was then presented to three experts to determine the validity of the content, the consistency of the question by IOC (Item Objective Congruence) and then adjusted  accordingly. The  finalized  questionnaire  was  then  given  to  a  trial  group  of  30 students to determine the reliability. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined to be 0.906 using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The finalized version was used for data collection.

    4.2  Learning Achievement Test for Information Technology

      4.2.1  The  learning  achievement  test  for  Information Technology  was  20 items. The achievement test was a multiple-choice quiz for Urban Environment and Industry program students at Suan Dusit Rajabhat University.

      4.2.2  Creation  and  determination  of  the  efficiency  of  the  learning achievement test for Information Technology. Preliminary data from the study of the theory and related documents guided the creation of the learning achievement test for Information Technology. Behavioral objectives were defined and a table was created to analyze the test (Test Blueprint). The content and coverage of the course was checked. A multiple-choice test of 20 questions was created and reviewed by three experts to check the content validity and the appropriate language (Wording) by assessing the consistency of the questionnaire with the purpose or IOC (Item Objective Congruence). The improved learning achievement test, based on recommendations, was piloted with students who had already studied the Information Technology subject already. The analysis of difficulty (p) and discrimination (r) screening test demonstrated a difficulty of 0.20-0.80 and discrimination of 0.20. It was decided that the test should cover the purpose and content of each episode; the reliability of the test (KR-20) had a

confidence 0.827.

  1. Data Analysis

    5.1  The statistical package for analysis digital citizenship was used for mean, standard deviation, and dependent t-test.

      The range of values corresponded with the following five levels:

      4.21 – 5.00 was the digital citizenship level 5

      3.41 – 4.20 was the digital citizenship level 4

      2.61 – 3.40 was the digital citizenship level 3

      1.81 – 2.60 was the digital citizenship level 2

      1.00 – 1.80 was the digital citizenship level 1

    5.2  Analysis of the learning achievement by analysis of mean, standard deviation and dependent t-test.

    5.3  Analysis  of  digital  citizenship  and  learning  achievement  using  Pearson’s correlation coefficient with the following criteria.

      > 0.81     high correlation

      0.61 – 0.80  correlation is quite high

      0.41 – 0.60  moderate relationship

      0.21 – 0.40  relationships rather low

      Relationships lower than 0.21



  1. Digital Citizenship

    Digital  citizenship  could  be  developed  by  using  teaching  with  e-Learning.  The students’ digital citizenship before and after undertaking e-Learning are shown in Table 1.


Table 1  Digital citizenship of the experiment between the pre-test and post-test



    Digital  citizenship  of  the  experiment  between  the  pre-test  and  post-test  was significantly different (p<0.05). The development of citizenship was at a high level, with the mean equal to 3.89; this demonstrates that 15.85 percent of students were found to have higher  digital  citizenship. A  comparison  of  students’  digital  citizenship  before  and  after undertaking the teaching is shown in Table 1. The digital citizenship of the experimental sample after undertaking teaching was 4 levels.

  1. Learning Achievement

    Details of the comparative analysis of achievement before and after learning  are provided in Table 2.


Table 2  The learning achievement pre-test and post-test


    A comparison of students’  learning  achievement before and after undertaking  e-Learning  is  shown  in Table  2.  Their  post-test  scores  on  learning  achievement  were significantly higher than pre-test scores (p<0.05).

  1. When students had completed e-Learning studies, the researchers evaluated the re-evaluated  digital  citizenship  and  academic  achievement.  The  correlation  of  digital citizenship  and  achievement  was  determined  by  using  Pearson’s  correlation  coefficient.   Table 3 provides the details.


Table 3  The correlation between digital citizenship and learning achievement


    Table  3 shows  that  the  relationship  of digital citizenship and achievement by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The correlation analysis found that overall, digital citizenship  and  academic  achievement  were  related. The  relationship  between  the  two variables was positive and rather high (r = 0.799); the significance level was 0.05.


Conclusion and Discussion

  1. The development of digital citizenship by using e-Learning found that the digital citizenship of the samples was moderate prior to the study. At the conclusion of the study, the digital citizenship of the experimental group increased to a high level. The samples all had higher development of digital citizenship. The categories of digital citizen, in descending order, are: understanding the human issues, the use of appropriate technology and lifelong learning, understanding social issues, understanding cultural issues and to behave ethically and in accordance with legal oversight. It can be seen that the sample focused the most on the issue of understanding humanity. Concept development skills of the 21st century graduates of higher education should have the Leadership Council of National Leadership Council for Liberal  Education  and America’s  Promise  (National  Leadership  Council  for  Liberal Education and America’s Promise, 2007). Students must be prepared for the challenges of the 21st century, with the accumulated knowledge about human culture. These include education in  science  and  mathematics,  humanities,  social  sciences,  history,  language  and  art;  the emphasis of studies should continue to focus on answers to key questions. The responsibility of  society  includes  knowledge  and  participation  of  citizens,  sharing  local  and  global knowledge  between  cultures,  and  reasoning  and  moral  action.  Including  basic  skills  for lifelong learning, it can be seen that the sample was dedicated to lifelong learning with the use of technology. Due to information technology, we can make use of the contemporary technology, innovate at the individual level, and change society. Technology has changed the world by providing a renewed passion for learning. Learning online has led to the formation of a partnership to produce resources together. The creation of an online community has enabled online learning by creative collaboration and sharing, for example, sharing pictures / videos,  social  networks,  blogs,  discussion  forums  online,  Wikipedia  and  file  sharing  (Dede, 2009a). 
  2. The learning achievement after the experiment with an average of 11.24 is higher compared with pre-test in general have an average of 6.57, it found that most of the learning achievement higher scores of the sample group in the 10.00 to 45.00 percent. The average percentage  score  of  the  sample  was  23.37;  comparing  achievement  before  and  after  the experiment by using statistical t-test (t-test) using a 95% achievement for samples before and  after the experiment was different. The students had some behaviors of choosing a topic or lesson that they think is useful or can answer their questions and self-selection of learning times.  Over time the student feels comfortable or appropriate for their learning. The study is due to be willingness and eagerness to learn more. This is an opportunity for learners to access  specialist  fields,  both  on  and  off  campus  from  domestic  and  foreign  countries.

The students can access information to learn from the experts directly. This is not possible with traditional teaching. It also saves time and costs. Compared to communication with experts  in  the  same  manner  and  similar  to  the  concept,  this  learning  style  is  a  way  of manpower development. With  online  instruction, students  can choose to study anything, learning any time that they want, and learn to be satisfied with a free and flexible e-Learning system. Online learning reduces the learning time by more than 50 percent and costs 30-60 percent less than traditional teaching and training (Netwong, 2013). 

  1. The correlation between digital citizenship and learning achievement were at the high level. Digital citizenship is important for digital life.  You want to get the best out of using the internet and keep yourself and others safe and healthy in an online world. Use of these  materials  allows  one  to  learn  what  it  takes  to  become  a  positive  digital  citizen.  [8] Digital citizenship helps learner make great decisions so they can take advantage of the powerful technology that fills their lives. The learner wants to explore for digital life, enjoy, communicate, and create. So they are protected or they know how to protect themselves.   If the learners are going to thrive with digital media or online digital, they must balance the negative with the positive, privacy with protection and know how to be safe and responsible before letting them loose. The learner need to see both the possibilities and the perils so they can act responsibly and seize all that is wondrous and have it enrich their lives as people and citizens (Digital Life: Our Kids’ Connected Culture, 2009).



Dede,  C.   (2009a).   Determining,  developing  and  assessing  the  capabilities  of  North  Carolina’s future-ready students.  Friday Institute White Paper Series.  Raleigh: North Carolina State University.

Digital  Citizenship.   (2013).   Retrieved  from

Digital  Life:  Our  Kids’  Connected  Culture.  (2009).  Retrieved  from:

International  Society  for  Technology  in  Education.   National  educational  technology standards for students (2nd Ed.).  Eugene, OR : (2007), Auther, 2007.

J. Bellanca, and R. Brandt. (2010). 21st Century Skills: Rethinking How Students Learn. Tree Press, 2010.

National Leadership Council for Liberal Education and America’s Promise. (2007). College learning  for  the  new  global  century.  National  Leadership  Council  for  Liberal Education and America’s Promise

Netwong, T.  (2013). The using of e-Learning to develop digital citizenship and learning achievement  in  Information Technology.  International  Journal  of  e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning.  3(2) pp. 135-137.  

Online Learning. (2010). Retrieved from:

Virtual  Environment.  (2010).  Retrived  from  :

Key words: e-Learning, learning management system: Moodle, digital citizenship, learning achievement
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